Hand to Hand Combat and Close Quarters Combat
Close combat is the common term for combat within close range. It may include lethal and nonlethal methods across a “spectrum of violence” or within a “continuum of force” as established by rules of engagement. Unarmed close combat is sometimes called combatives. Close combat with weapons may be called close quarter battle at the squad level. Current NATO terminology is to use MOUT for higher-level strategic and tactical considerations of urban warfare or MOOTW for “military operations other than war” such as peacekeeping or disaster relief.
Combatives is a term used to describe various hybrid martial arts, which incorporate techniques from several different martial arts and combat sports. Unlike combat sports, such systems usually have limited sport application and often focus on simple techniques for use in self-defense or combat.
- Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP) [techniques]
- Combat system developed by the United States Marine Corps to combine existing and new hand-to-hand and close quarters combat (CQC) techniques with morale and team-building functions and instruction in what the Marine Corps calls the “Warrior Ethos”. Unarmed combat, edged weapons, weapons of opportunity, and rifle and bayonet techniques.
- Modern Army Combatives [techniques]
- Realistic training around the Army. Basic techniques. MAC fundamental techniques in a series of grappling drills. The basic techniques form a framework upon which the rest of the program can build and are taught as a series of drills. Course is heavy on grappling, but it is a course designed for soldiers going into combat. Combatives can be used to kill or disable, the man that typically wins a hand-to-hand fight in combat is the one whose allies arrive with guns first.
- San Shou [techniques] [style info]
- Synthesis of traditional Chinese kung fu fighting techniques into a more amorphous system and is commonly taught alongside traditional Chinese styles which Sanshou techniques, theory and training methods are derived from. The emphasis of Sanshou is on realistic fighting ability. As an unarmed self-defense, close combat system, Sanshou includes da (punches), ti (kicks), shuai (grappling), and na (throws, locks, chokes).
- Combat Sambo [techniques] [style info]
- Modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union. Utilized and developed for the military, combat sambo includes practice with weapons, including disarming techniques. Competition in combat sambo resembles older forms of judo and modern mixed martial arts, including extensive forms of striking and grappling.
- Israeli Kapap [training] [style info]
- Kapap translated as “face to face combat”, is the original Israeli combat system of defensive tactics, hand to hand combat and self defense employed by the Jewish Underground Movements. Primarily considered as a practical skill set. The main focus was Physical endurance, elevate and strengthen the spirit, developing a defensive and offensive skill set when needed. It included physical training and endurance, cold weapon practical usage, Boxing and JuJutsu fight styles knife and sticks.
- Krav Maga [techniques] [style videos]
- Krav Maga is an eclectic self-defense and military hand-to-hand combat system developed in Israel, which assumes no quarter, and emphasizes maximum threat neutralization in a “real life” context. It came to prominence following its adoption by various Israeli Security Forces. The attacks and defenses are intended for potentially lethal threat situations, and aim to neutralize these and escape via maximum pain or damage to opponents, as rapidly and safely as possible. Crippling attacks to vulnerable body parts, including groin and eye strikes, headbutts, and other efficient and potentially brutal attacks, improvised use of any objects available, and maximizing personal safety in a fight, are emphasized.
- Systema [techniques] [style info]
- Systema is a Russian martial art. It is designed to be highly adaptive and practical, training using drills and sparring instead of set kata. It focuses mainly on the six body levers (elbows, neck, knees, waist, ankles, and shoulders), while also teaching pressure point application and takedowns. Systema is often advertised as being a martial art employed by some Russian Spetsnaz units.
- Defendo [techniques] [style info]
- Defendo is a martial art and self defense system created in 1945 for law enforcement by Bill Underwood, a British born Canadian. Underwood was originally the creator of Combato a “non-boxing or wrestling” unarmed combat system which he taught in Montreal, Quebec.
- Wing Tsun [techniques] [style info]
- The main objective of WingTsun (WT) is to be a realistic system of self-defense. WT does not focus on fighting “techniques”, instead relying on fighting and energy principles to be followed at all times.
- Kali Eskrima [techniques] [style info]
- Eskrima emphasize stick and sword fighting. Eskrima is actually a defense through offense-based art. Modern training methods tend to de-emphasize careful footwork and low stances, with more emphasis on learning techniques as opposed to more direct and effective tactics designed to instantly end an encounter.
- Pencak Silat [techniques] [style info]
- Pencak Silat is a martial art from Indonesia that in its self-defense form, using hands and foot fighting techniques combined with a series of characteristic footsteps. It is primarily a killing and self defense art that also uses many weapons. There are a 100s of forms of Silat and some aspects are kept secret.